Tipu Sultan, The Tiger of Mysore

Tipu Sultan (Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu), also known as Tipu Sahab or Tiger of Mysore, was a ruler of the Mysore Kingdom based in South India. He was a pioneer of rocket weapons.

Tipu was born on November 20, 1750, in Devanahalli at the time, now known as the Bangalore Rural District. Throughout his life, Tipu Sultan fought various battles and made his kingdom of Mysore proud of his will and strength. However, he is most closely associated with the first sepoy rebellion in India, known as Vellore Mutiny. It was one of the major oppose of the British before their rise to power in India.

Mutiny of 1857 is well known to everyone; However, the Vellore Mutiny of 1806 was India's 1st revolt against British rule of east India company.

Tipu introduced a large number of administrative innovations during his rule, including a new financial(mint) system and calendar, as well as a new revenue system that started the growth of the Mysore silk industry.

He also embarked on an outstanding economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest wages and standard of living in the late 18th century.

Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to power and took over Mysore, and Tipu succeeded him as ruler of Mysore at his father's death in 1782. He won a significant British victory in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Mangalore Convention after the death of his father by cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Napoleon Bonaparte sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. Both Tipu Sultan and his father Hyder Ali used their French-trained army in alliance with the French in their struggle against the British, and in Mysore's struggles with another surrounding power, against the rulers of Malabar, Carnatic, Kodagu, Bednore, Travancore, Marathas, and Sira. 

He raised iron-cased Mysorean rockets and plenipotentiary the military manual Fathul Mujahidin. He used rockets in the fight against the organized British troops and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Siege of Seringapatam and the Battle of Pollilur.

Tipu's quarrels with his neighbors included the Maratha - Mysore War which ended with the signing of the Gajendragad Treaty. The agreement demanded that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one-time Maratha war, and an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees in addition to restitution of all land occupied by Hyder Ali.

Tipu was still the invincible enemy of the British East India Company,  sparking conflict with an attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced to enter into the Sergapatam Treaty, which lost many of its previously conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore. He sent envoys to foreign lands, including the Ottoman Empire, Afghanistan, and France, in an effort to rally against the British opposition.

In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, troops from the British East India Company defeated Tipu. Tipu was assassinated on May 4, 1799, while defending his fortress of Seringapatam.

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